The effects of the administration of acetazolamide and thiamine (A + T) on the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (TD) and parkinsonism of 8 elderly and 25 younger chronic hospitalized mental patients were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced two-period cross-over study with initial baselines and intervening washout periods. All patients were maintained on their prestudy psychoactive and anti-Parkinson medications, without alteration, throughout the study. The elderly group received 1.5 g acetazolamide and thiamine per day in three divided doses for 3 weeks. The younger group received 1.5 g thiamine and 2.0 g acetazolamide per day in divided doses for 2 months. Both groups showed a significant decrease in scores on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (TD) and the Simpson-Angus Neurological Rating Scale (parkinsonism) while on A + T. The A + T effects were unrelated to age, gender, diagnosis, or maintenance medications.