Convenience store robberies in selected metropolitan areas. Risk factors for employee injury

J Occup Environ Med. 1997 May;39(5):442-7. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199705000-00010.


Circumstances of injury were abstracted from police reports for 1835 convenience store robberies that occurred during 1992 or 1993 in selected metropolitan areas of seven eastern states. Subset analyses were performed using the data (758 robberies) from four states with relatively complete risk factor information. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of injury in a robbery situation for various risk factors. The overall risk of employee robbery-related injury could not be estimated because the probability of robbery is unknown. Of the 1835 robberies, 59% of the total robberies occurred at nighttime (9 p.m. to 3 a.m.), 47% occurred in stores previously robbed in the study period, 63% involved the use of a firearm, and 12% were associated with an injury to at least one employee. In the subset analysis of 758 robberies in four states, the employee probability of injury in a robbery was lower with firearm use compared with no weapon or use of a blunt instrument, and the probability of severe injury (defined as death, or an injury necessitating a trip to a hospital) was lower with a firearm compared with the use of a blunt instrument. However, all five fatalities were firearm-related. Other factors that were associated with a lower probability of employee injury included robbery occurrence in stores that had been robbed multiple times, compared with stores robbed only once; having 1 to 999 dollars stolen, compared with having no money stolen; and the presence of a customer(s) in the store at the time of the robbery. The employee risk of injury was not significantly different between one- (0.106) and multiple-employee (0.111) stores. Similarly, the employee risk of severe injury was not significantly different between one- (0.029) and multiple-employee stores (0.022). We conclude that there are several potential risk factors for employee injury in convenience store robberies, some of which are amenable to interventions. Further research on these factors and their relationship to employee injury is indicated.

MeSH terms

  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Commerce / statistics & numerical data*
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Female
  • Homicide / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Male
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Occupational Diseases / economics
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Theft / statistics & numerical data*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Urban Population
  • Wounds and Injuries / epidemiology*
  • Wounds and Injuries / etiology