Goal confidence and difficulty as predictors of goal attainment in junior high school cross-country runners

Percept Mot Skills. 1997 Jun;84(3 Pt 1):747-52. doi: 10.2466/pms.1997.84.3.747.

Abstract

This study examined the influence of confidence in a goal and difficulty of the goal on the attainment of self-set goals regarding time and position. 63 junior high school cross-country runners (M age = 13.5 yr., SD = .5 yr.) completed a 6-item Race Goals Questionnaire approximately 24 hr. prior to a 2-km race. Attainability of a goal was assessed by categorizing runners into either a Performed to Expectation (Time, Position) or an Underperformed group (Time, Position). A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences between the two groups on Time for Confidence in goals and on Difficulty of Goals. There were no differences between the two groups on Position. Discriminant function analyses to predict time goal performance indicated that 47 (74.6%) participants could be correctly classified into the groups by Time on the basis of Confidence in Goals, and Difficulty of Goals. Discriminant function analyses to predict performance in terms of Position indicated 38 participants (60.3%) could be correctly classified on the basis of Confidence in Goals, and Difficulty of Goals. The results concur with previous proposals that goals regarding time and position have a differential influence on performance.

MeSH terms

  • Achievement*
  • Adolescent
  • Female
  • Goals*
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Male
  • Motivation*
  • Personality Inventory
  • Running / psychology*
  • Self Concept
  • Students / psychology*