We recently identified a trinucleotide repeat polymorphism, (GCT)n, within the transmembrane (TM) segment of the human MHC class I MICA gene (MHC class I chain-related gene A). Five distinct alleles (A4, A5, A5.1, A6, A9) corresponding to 4, 5, 5 with one nucleotide insertion, 6 and 9 repetitions, respectively, have been detected in various HLA-homozygous B cell lines. Here we present allele frequencies for this trimeric short tandem repeat (STR) in 604 unrelated individuals collected from nine human populations (Japanese, Northern Han, Hui, Uygur, Kazakhstan, Iranian, Saudi Arabian, Greek and Italian) determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with fluorescent-based automated fragment detection technology. All alleles were present in each population, but allelic distributions varied from one population to another. No new alleles (such as A7 or A8) were identified. The evolutionary and structural significance of these data as well as the potential application to forensic medicine is discussed.