Analysis of nucleotide insertion and extension at 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine by replicative T7 polymerase exo- and human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase using steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics

Biochemistry. 1997 May 27;36(21):6475-87. doi: 10.1021/bi9627267.


Pre-steady-state kinetics of incorporation of dCTP and dATP opposite site-specific 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), in contrast to dCTP insertion opposite G, were examined as well as extension beyond the lesion using the replicative enzymes bacteriophage polymerase T7 exo- (T7-) and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). These results were compared to previous findings for Escherichia coli repair polymerases I (KF-) and II (pol II-) exo- [Lowe, L. G., & Guengerich, F. P. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 9840-9849]. HIV-1 RT showed a very high preference for insertion of dATP opposite 8-oxoGua, followed by pol II-, T7-, and KF-. Steady-state assays showed k(cat) consistently lower than pre-steady-state polymerization rates (k(p)) for insertion of dCTP opposite G or 8-oxoGua and insertion of dATP opposite 8-oxoGua. Pre-steady-state kinetic curves for the addition of dCTP opposite 8-oxoGua or G by KF-, pol II-, and T7- were all biphasic, with a rapid initial single-turnover burst followed by a slower multiple turnover rate, while addition of dATP opposite 8-oxoGua by these polymerases did not display burst kinetics. With HIV-1 RT, addition of dATP opposite 8-oxoGua displayed burst kinetics while addition of dCTP did not. Analyses of the chemical step by substitution of phosphorothioate analogs for normal dNTPs suggest that the chemistry is rate-limiting during addition of dCTP and dATP opposite 8-oxoGua by KF-, pol II-, and T7-; HIV- RT did not show a chemical rate-limiting step during addition of dATP opposite 8-oxoGua. Kinetic assays performed with various dCTP concentrations indicate that dCTP has a higher Kd and lower k(p) for incorporation opposite 8-oxoGua compared to G with all four enzymes. The K(d,app)dATP values for KF-, pol II-, and T7- incorporation of dATP opposite 8-oxoGua, estimated in competition assays, were found to be 3-10-fold greater than the K(d)dCTP. Likewise, the K(d,app)dCTP for HIV-1 RT incorporation of dCTP opposite 8-oxoGua was found to be 10-fold greater than the K(d)dATP. The repair enzymes (KF- and pol II-) efficiently extended the 8-oxoGua x A pair; extension of 8-oxoGua x C was severely impaired, whereas the replicative enzymes (T7- and HIV-1 RT) extended both pairs, with faster rates for the extension of the 8-oxoGua x A pair. On the basis of these findings, the fidelity of all four enzymes during replication of 8-oxoGua depends on contributions from the apparent Kd, the ease of base pair extension, and either the rate of conformational change before chemistry or the rate of bond formation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriophage T7 / enzymology*
  • Binding Sites
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA Replication*
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / metabolism*
  • Deoxyadenine Nucleotides / metabolism
  • Deoxycytosine Nucleotides / metabolism
  • Guanine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Guanine / metabolism
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Titrimetry


  • Deoxyadenine Nucleotides
  • Deoxycytosine Nucleotides
  • 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate
  • 8-hydroxyguanine
  • Guanine
  • DNA
  • bacteriophage T7 induced DNA polymerase
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase