The prognosis for haemodialysis patients is reported to be more favourable in Japan than in Europe or North America. Consequently, evaluation of the death predictors for haemodialysis patients in Japan is of considerable interest outside Japan. The Patient Registration Committee of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy annually surveys the individual patient case mix, laboratory data and important events occurring in the previous years. Thus, using case mix data and laboratory data (including Kt/V and protein catabolic rate) from the 1993 questionnaire survey and the individual patients' life/death statistics from the 1994 questionnaire survey, a logistic regression analysis was conducted on 53867 patients. The analysis indicated that important death risk predictors were: (i) advanced age, (ii) occurrence of diabetes mellitus, (iii) male sex, (iv) Kt/V lower than 1.8, (v) haemodialysis time less than 5 h, (vi) protein catabolic rate less than 0.9 g/kg/day, and (vii) percentage body weight decrease less than 4% and more than 8% during the first haemodialysis session of the week.