Thrombosis occurs in 20 to 30% of patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Most of the reported hemostatic abnormalities are related to the inflammatory syndrome. We have assessed the activity of antithrombin III, protein C and protein S (PS), in 30 patients with BD and in 30 healthy controls. Thrombosis antecedents were found in 16 patients. Antithrombin III and protein C were within the normal range, however free PS and PSactivity were significantly decreased in patients as compared to control group. PS deficiency detected in eight patients, was associated to thrombosis in 6 of them. No correlation was found between free PS/total PS ratio and C4bBP levels. Antibodies to PS were screened by ELISA and were present in 6 patients, associated to PS deficiency in 4, and to thrombosis antecedents in 5 cases. PS deficiency was transient in two patients, associated to a persistent antiPS in one of them. These findings suggest that auto-immune acquired PS deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of thrombotic events in BD.