Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a term that was first applied in 1985 to describe a long-observed but unclassified pattern of acute lung injury. BOOP lesions are characterized by fibrous extensions into the alveolar spaces in association with a peribronchiolar organizing pneumonia. Since 1985, an increasing number of reports of BOOP have appeared in the clinical literature, and it is now accepted that BOOP is a significant pulmonary syndrome. Although BOOP can be associated with a number of documented pulmonary insults, many cases are not associated with known causes and are thus classified as idiopathic. The lack of an appropriate small animal model that closely mimics the generation of BOOP lesions has been an impediment to basic studies of the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the generation of BOOP in humans. In this report, we describe an animal model for BOOP in which CBA/J mice infected with reovirus serotype 1/strain Lang develop BOOP lesions. These lesions closely resemble those seen in humans and occur in a well defined temporal sequence that proceeds from initial peribronchiolar inflammatory lesions to characteristic, fibrotic cellular BOOP lesions over a 3-week time course.