A combination AIDS vaccine approach consisting of priming with adenovirus-HIV-1MN gp160 recombinants followed by boosting with HIV-1SF2 gp120 was evaluated in chimpanzees. Long-lasting protection, requiring only three immunizations, was achieved against a low-dose challenge with the SF2 strain of HIV-1 and a subsequent high-dose SF2 challenge administered 1 year later without an intervening boost. Notably, neutralizing antibody responses against both clinical and laboratory isolates developed in three chimpanzees and persisted until the time of high-dose challenge. The possibility that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes contribute to low-dose protection of a chimpanzee lacking neutralizing antibodies is suggested. Our results validate the live vector priming/subunit booster approach and should stimulate interest in assessing this combination vaccine approach in humans.