Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jun;82(6):1823-7. doi: 10.1210/jcem.82.6.3984.


We determined whether alteration in urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 (UAQP-2) is of value to diagnose central diabetes insipidus (CDI). First, UAQP-2 was determined in 16 normal subjects under ad libitum water drinking (n = 6) and after an overnight dehydration (n = 10). UAQP-2 has a positive correlation with plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels (r = 0.61, P < 0.05) but not with urinary osmolality (Uosm). Second, a hypertonic saline (5% NaCl)-infusion test was studied in 5 normal subjects (21 to 25 yr old) and 10 patients with CDI (22-68 yr). After drinking water ad libitum, they were given 20 mL/kg water orally and then given 5% NaCl (0.05 mL/kg x min) i.v. for 120 min. Finally, 0.1 U of AVP was administered i.v. During the period, 30-min urine collections were made. In the normal subjects, after the infusion of 5% NaCl, plasma AVP levels and Uosm markedly increased in parallel with an increase in plasma osmolality (Posm, 294-320 mOsm/kg H2O; Uosm, 102-737 mOsm/kg H2O; AVP, 0.4-2.6 pg/mL, P < 0.001). In the CDI patients, plasma AVP and Uosm failed to increase, despite an increase in Posm (Posm, 306-332; Uosm, 102-164; AVP, 0.9-1.2). UAQP-2 was markedly greater in the normal subjects than the CDI patients (7.2 vs. 0.9 pmol/L/mg creatinine, P < 0.05) under water intake ad libitum. UAQP-2 was changeable in the wide range in physiological condition. After the 5%-NaCl infusion, UAQP-2 elevated to 12.5 from 0.9 pmol/L x mg creatinine in the normal subjects. In contrast, UAQP-2 remained low during the 5%-NaCl infusion in the CDI patients. Exogenous AVP promptly increased UAQP-2 to a similar extent in two groups of the normal subjects and the CDI patients. These results indicate that measurement of UAQP-2 is of value to diagnose CDI in the 5%-NaCl infusion test.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aquaporin 2
  • Aquaporin 6
  • Aquaporins*
  • Arginine Vasopressin / blood
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Diabetes Insipidus / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Insipidus / urine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Ion Channels / urine*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Radioimmunoassay
  • Reference Values
  • Saline Solution, Hypertonic


  • AQP2 protein, human
  • Aquaporin 2
  • Aquaporin 6
  • Aquaporins
  • Ion Channels
  • Saline Solution, Hypertonic
  • Arginine Vasopressin
  • Creatinine