A second type of rhodopsin cDNA from carp (cRh-II) shared 97.2% polynucleotide identity with the previously reported cRh-I. The deduced amino acid sequences of cRh-I and cRh-II exhibited 98.6% identity. The key difference between these two types of cRh is that valine at position 169 of cRh-I was replaced by glutamic acid in cRh-II. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA showed that there were two types of cRh gene. These two rod opsin genes were proven to be expressed in carp retinas by using RT-PCR with type-specific primers.