Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are signal transducers for members of the TNF receptor superfamily. We previously identified murine TRAF5 (mTRAF5) and showed that it specifically interacts with the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LT-beta R) and activates the transcription factor NF-kappa B. Here we have cloned the human TRAF5 homologue (hTRAF5) by cross hybridization with mTRAF5 cDNA. hTRAF5 cDNA is composed of 2894 nucleotides with a 557-amino-acid open reading frame that exhibits 77.5 and 80% identity to mTRAF5 at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed that hTRAF5 mRNA is expressed in all visceral organs. Western blotting revealed that hTRAF5 protein was abundantly expressed in the human follicular dentritic cell line, FDC-1, and to a much lesser degree in several tumor cell lines. Interspecific backcross mapping revealed that Traf5 is located in the distal region of mouse chromosome 1, which shares a region of homology with human chromosome 1q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed regional localization to human chromosome 1q32.