In vivo measurement of regional brain metabolic response to hyperventilation using magnetic resonance: proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI)

Magn Reson Med. 1997 Jun;37(6):858-65. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910370609.


A new rapid spectroscopic imaging technique with improved sensitivity and lipid suppression, referred to as Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (PEPSI), has been developed to measure the 2-dimensional distribution of brain lactate increases during hyperventilation on a conventional clinical scanner equipped with a head surface coil phased array. PEPSI images (nominal voxel size: 1.125 cm3) in five healthy subjects from an axial section approximately 20 mm inferior to the intercommissural line were obtained during an 8.5-min baseline period of normocapnia and during the final 8.5 min of a 10-min period of capnometry-controlled hyperventilation (end-tidal PCO2 of 20 mmHg). The lactate/N-acetyl aspartate signal increased significantly from baseline during hyperventilation for the insular cortex, temporal cortex, and occipital regions of both the right and left hemisphere, but not in the basal ganglia. Regional or hemispheric right-to-left differences were not found. The study extends previous work using single-voxel MR spectroscopy to dynamically study hyperventilation effects on brain metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Aspartic Acid / metabolism
  • Basal Ganglia / metabolism
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism
  • Choline / metabolism
  • Creatine / metabolism
  • Echo-Planar Imaging / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperventilation / metabolism*
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods*
  • Male


  • Aspartic Acid
  • Lactic Acid
  • N-acetylaspartate
  • Creatine
  • Choline