Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis represent the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. An estimated 3-4 million cases annually necessitate the expenditure of more than $2 billion in health care costs per year. The ramifications of infection with this organism have significant reproductive complications. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader with a review of Chlamydia trachomatis in general with particular focus on those areas that are pertinent to the adolescent population. The authors hereby provide an overview of the clinically pertinent microbiology, epidemiology, risk factors, selective screening protocols, diagnostic methods, clinical manifestations, and sequelae of C. trachomatis.