Pneumothorax is an unusual complication of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We report three children who developed recurrent intrathoracic air leaks. In one case, bilateral pneumothoraces may have been precipated by intermittent positive pressure ventilation during general anaesthesia. Chemical pleurodesis was unsuccessful in preventing recurrence of pneumothoraces in two children. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an alternative to intermittent positive pressure ventilation in children with respiratory failure from Langerhans cell histiocytosis is discussed.