Background: Insulin lispro is an insulin analog that was recently developed particularly for a mealtime therapy. It has a fast absorption rate and short duration of action. The efficacy of insulin lispro in the clinical therapy of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) has not been tested.
Objectives: To compare insulin lispro and human regular insulin in the mealtime treatment of patients with NIDDM.
Methods: A 6-month, randomized, multinational (16 countries), multicenter (80 sites) clinical trial with an open-label, crossover design was performed in 722 patients with NIDDM. Insulin lispro was injected immediately before and human regular insulin 30 to 45 minutes before the meal.
Results: Throughout the study, the postprandial rise in serum glucose levels was significantly lower during insulin lispro than human regular insulin treatment. At end point the rise (mean +/- SEM) in serum glucose levels was 30% lower at 1 hour (2.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/L [46.8 +/- 1.8 mg/ dL] for lispro vs 3.7 +/- 0.1 mmol/L [66.6 +/- 1.8 mg/dL] for human regular insulin) and 53% lower 2 hours after the test meal (1.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/L [25.2 +/- 1.8 mg/dL] for lispro vs 3.0 +/- 0.1 mmol/L [54.0 +/- 1.8 mg/dL] for human regular insulin) with insulin lispro compared with human regular insulin therapy (P < .001 for both intervals). During insulin lispro therapy the rate of hypoglycemia overall (P = .01) and overnight (P < .001) was lower and the number of asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes was smaller (P = .03) than during human regular insulin therapy. Associated with a similar 13% increase (P < .001) in the total daily insulin dose, the glycosylated hemoglobin level decreased (P < .001) equally in both treatment groups. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels remained unchanged. There were no differences in the adverse events between the 2 treatment groups.
Conclusions: Compared with human regular insulin therapy, mealtime therapy with insulin lispro reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and may decrease the rate of mild hypoglycemic episodes in patients with NIDDM.