We found a patient with mild hemophilia A who had no detectable factor VIII antigen (FVIII:Ag), as shown by two-site ELISA using inhibitor alloantibodies (TK). We then analyzed A2, A2/B, and C2 antigen of the patient's DDAVP-induced FVIII using several anti-FVIII monoclonal antibodies. Factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) was increased from 12 to 42 U/dl by the administration of DDAVP. The DDAVP-induced increases in the A2 and A2/B antigens were 40 and 36 U/dl, respectively. However, the increase in the C2 antigen was only 7.5 U/dl. SSCP analysis and subsequent sequencing demonstrated an Arg to Cys transition at codon 2159. The anti-FVIII:C titer of monoclonal antibody, NMC-VIII/5 which recognized the C2 domain, against normal plasma was 450 Bethesda U/mg of IgG. However, the titer against DDAVP-treated patient's plasma was only 15 Bethesda U/mg. We also tested DDAVP-induced increase in the FVIII:Ag in another mild hemophilia A patient with the same mutation at Arg2159. Increase in his C2 antigen levels was only 19% of those in the A2 and A2/B antigen. We designate this abnormal FVIII as FVIII Ise. Our results show that a missense mutation at Arg2159 to Cys modifies the antigenicity of the C2 domain.