Placode-derived general visceral afferent neurons of the nodose ganglion transmit visceral sensory information from specialized sensory endings of the vagus nerve and its branches to the nucleus of the solitary tract. These neurons are critical in relaying information such as elevations in blood pressure, changes in blood oxygenation, passage of contents through the esophagus and intestines, and distention of the heart, stomach, and lungs to the CNS for reflex maintenance of visceral functions. Multiple neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, calcium binding proteins, and other neuroactive substances are associated with neurons of the nodose ganglion. Many neurons colocalize 2 or more neuroactive substances creating the potential for complex interactions of neurochemical signals in the NTS. Neurons of the nodose ganglion also contain a variety of receptors which respond to transmitters, inflammatory mediators, and neurotrophic factors. The contents of these neurochemicals and receptors are not static as alterations in their expression are noted in response to epigenetic influences. Although not yet well understood, potential factors and mechanisms regulating neurochemical events in the nodose ganglion neurons are discussed.