Purpose: To evaluate the visual acuity, change in macular hole size, and change in subretinal fluid cuff size after unsuccessful macular hole closure.
Methods: Forty-two consecutive eyes with macular hole and unsuccessful surgery for macular hole were studied. Preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuities were tested according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol, and changes were compared. Preoperative and postoperative fundus photographs were analyzed on a photograph documenter for changes in diameter of the macular hole and surrounding subretinal fluid cuff.
Results: Mean visual acuity decreased from 20/133 preoperatively to 20/154 postoperatively (mean loss, 0.79 ETDRS line). Mean diameter of the macular hole enlarged 22%; mean diameter of the visible surrounding subretinal fluid cuff enlarged 36%. A decrease in best-corrected visual acuity postoperatively was correlated with better preoperative visual acuity, earlier macular hole stage, and shorter duration. Enlargement in the diameter of the macular hole and fluid cuff did not correlate with better preoperative best-corrected visual acuity, earlier macular hole stage, or shorter duration. In 23 eyes that had failed previous surgery, macular hole surgery was anatomically successful in 17 (65%) (mean improvement, 3.7 ETDRS lines; mean best-corrected final visual acuity, 20/74).
Conclusion: After macular hole surgery, anatomically unsuccessful closure of the hole correlates with small enlargements in the diameter of the macular hole and its surrounding subretinal fluid cuff, and with a slight decrease in visual acuity. Macular hole closure after repeat surgery improves visual acuity outcome in the majority of retreated eyes.