Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are two inherited peripheral neuropathies. The most prevalent mutations are a reciprocal 1.5-Mb duplication and 1.5-Mb deletion, respectively, at the CMT1A/HNPP locus on chromosome 17p11.2. Point mutations in the coding region of the myelin genes, peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), myelin protein zero (MPZ) or connexin 32 (Cx32) have been reported in CMT patients, including CMT type 1 (CMT1), CMT type 2 (CMT2) and Déjérine-Sottas neuropathy (DS) patients, and only in the coding region of PMP22 in HNPP families lacking a deletion. We have investigated point and small mutations in the MPZ, PMP22 and Cx32 genes in a series of patients of Spanish ancestry: 47 CMT patients without duplications, and 5 HNPP patients without deletions. We found 15 different mutations in 16 CMT patients (34%). Nine different mutations in ten patients were detected in the Cx32 gene, this being the most frequently involved gene in this series, whereas five mutations involved the MPZ gene and only one the PMP22 gene. Six out of nine nucleotide substitutions in the Cx32 gene involved two codons encoding arginine at positions 164 and 183, suggesting that these two codons may constitute two Cx32 regions prone to mutate in the Spanish population. Analysis of HNPP patients revealed a 5' splicing mutation in intron 1 of the PMP22 gene in a family with autosomal dominance, which confirms allelic heterogeneity in HNPP. Ectopic mRNA analysis on leukocytes suggests that this mutation might behave as a null allele.