Lung transplantation offers the possibility of improved quality of life and survival in patients with severe pulmonary and pulmonary vascular disease. Since the first human lung allotransplantation in 1963, survival has moved from hours or days into the present era of long-term (years) survival in many recipients. Measurement of outcome has now extended to measurement of exercise capacity and quality of life. A substantial improvement in quality of life is seen; however, exercise capacity remains moderately impaired in spite of the return (in many) of near normal cardiopulmonary function, suggesting peripheral limitation to exercise. Recently, fiber type changes and abnormal oxidative metabolism have been shown in the skeletal muscle of stable lung transplant recipients. This suggests a persistence of a pretransplant skeletal muscle injury and/ or the effects of post-transplant immunosuppression (particularly Cyclosporin A and corticosteroids).