The NNIS and the newly established SCOPE data indicate that the relative proportion of organisms causing nosocomial bloodstream infections has changed over the last decade, with Candida species now being firmly established as one of the most frequent agents. The epidemiology of nosocomial candidemia is continually being refined, but established predisposing factors including immunosuppression and malignancies, use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and use of indwelling central catheters remain as significant risk factors. The high cost of health care and greater attention to continuous quality improvement will stimulate better and more effective ways of diagnosing and treating candida infections using combined clinical and microbiologic acumen. There is room for optimism as newer antifungal agents with reduced toxicities have impact on therapy of candidal infections. Aggressive development of still more agents and reformulations of older agents continue in earnest. Even greater consolation comes from the increased awareness of lay and medical personnel alike regarding the appropriate and judicious use of antimicrobial agents.