During the period 1983-1995, 200 chronic renal failure patients (115 males and 85 females) were parathyroidectomized for hyperparathyroidism in our Department. In all of them, the presenting clinical symptoms, physical signs, biochemical and radiological tests were typically those of hyperparathyroidism. One hundred ninety patients were operated for the first time whereas 10 were re-operated due to relapse of the disease; 3 of these cases were primary hyperparathyroidism, 182 secondary and 5 tertiary. All three primary hyperparathyroidism cases underwent removal of the adenoma; in the group of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 50 underwent removal of all the parathyroid glands found, 25 underwent total parathyroidectomy with forearm or deltoid autograft and 60 subtotal parathyroidectomy whereas in 39 and 8 patients only 3 and 2 parathyroid glands were found respectively. In the group of tertiary hyperparathyroidism, we removed only the hyperplastic gland detected as the operative detection of the rest was not possible. Ten cases were re-operated for removal of the remaining glands. No complications were noted postoperatively, apart from severe hypocalcemia in 20 cases, treated successfully by Calcium and Vitamin D administration. The highest relapse rate was noted among the 8 patients with only the 2 parathyroid glands removed. It seems that total or subtotal parathyroidectomy represents the most successful methods for surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism complicating chronic renal failure.