Mutants lacking the first enzyme in de novo purine synthesis (PurF) can synthesize thiamine if increased levels of pantothenate are present in the culture medium (J. L. Enos-Berlage and D. M. Downs, J. Bacteriol. 178:1476-1479, 1996). Derivatives of purF mutants that no longer required pantothenate for thiamine-independent growth were isolated. Analysis of these mutants demonstrated that they were defective in succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh), an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Results of phenotypic analyses suggested that a defect in Sdh decreased the thiamine requirement of Salmonella typhimurium. This reduced requirement correlated with levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA), which is synthesized in a thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent reaction. The effect of succinyl-CoA on thiamine metabolism was distinct from the role of pantothenate in thiamine synthesis.