TCR-alpha-deficient mice spontaneously develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at 8-9 mo old. This study characterizes an accelerated form of IBD induced by Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Cryptosporidium parvum-infected TCR-alpha-deficient mice developed IBD as early as 4 wk old when challenged at 1 wk old. The lesions of this accelerated IBD resembled the lesions of spontaneous IBD in TCR-alpha-deficient mice and consisted of a mononuclear cell infiltrate within the intestinal lamina propria and an increased proliferation of enterocytes. The mononuclear cells within the lamina propria consisted of B cells and gamma delta T cells. The distal ileum, cecum, and colon were grossly thickened due to a hyperplastic mucosa and edematous submucosa. The mechanism by which C. parvum infection accelerates development of IBD is presently unclear.