Actinomycosis was first described as a clinical entity over 100 years ago. However, the fundamental characteristics of this entity have not been fully discussed, and major questions remain unanswered, such as the highly diversified pathogenicity of the phenomenon according to numerous published case reports and clarification of solid diagnostic criteria. Even the frequency of cervicofacial actinomycosis occurrence is unclear; some authors consider it to be rare and others to be common. We present 11 cases examined and treated in our department within the last 14 years along with a review of the literature. Diagnostic problems are emphasized, and a comprehensive overview of the entity is suggested.