The 5'-cap and the poly(A) tail act synergistically to increase the translational efficiency of eukaryotic mRNAs, which suggests that these two mRNA elements communicate during translation. We report here that the cap-associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs), i. e. the two isoforms of the cap-binding complex (eIF-4F and eIF-iso4F) and eIF-4B, bind to the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) both in the presence and absence of poly(A) RNA. The interactions between PABP and eIF-4F, eIF-iso4F, and eIF-4B were measured in the absence of poly(A) RNA using far Western analysis and confirmed by direct fluorescence titration studies. The functional consequence of the interaction between these initiation factors and PABP was examined using RNA binding assays and RNA mobility shift analysis. eIF-4F, eIF-iso4F, and eIF-4B promoted PABP activity through a shift in its equilibrium affinity for poly(A). eIF-iso4G, the large subunit of eIF-iso4F, was the subunit responsible for the interaction between eIF-iso4F and PABP and was the subunit that promoted PABP RNA binding activity. Truncation analysis of eIF-iso4G indicated that a domain close to its N-terminal end appeared to be involved in binding PABP. These results suggest that the interaction between PABP and eIF-4B and eIF-iso4G may be involved in mediating the functional co-dependence observed between the cap and the poly(A) tail during translation.