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Identification of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Adipose Tissue and Its Induction by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha

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Identification of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Adipose Tissue and Its Induction by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha

J Hirokawa et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.

Abstract

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been rediscovered as a proinflammatory cytokine, pituitary hormone, and glucocorticoid-induced immunoregulator. A survey of tissue distribution revealed that MIF expression is not limited to T lymphocytes, but exists in several other tissues; however, its presence in adipose tissue has never been investigated. In this study, we examined the expression of MIF in adipose tissue using the rat epididymal fat pad and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed the expression of MIF mRNA and MIF protein, respectively, in both the fat pad and the adipocyte cell line. In immunohistochemistry, a positive staining reaction with an anti-rat MIF antibody was detected largely in the cytosol of adipocytes of the epididymal fat pad. To examine the production and release of MIF by adipocytes, we examined its content in the culture medium of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that MIF content was 1.6 +/- 0.48 ng/ml (mean +/- SD) after 24 hr culture, and the content was increased up to 9.7 +/- 2.8 ng/ml by stimulation with TNF-alpha (50 nM). Since TNF-alpha produced in adipocytes is known to induce insulin resistance, the results suggest the possibility that MIF plays an important role in the mechanism of insulin resistance often observed in obesity and diabetes via regulation of TNF-alpha expression.

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