In a double-blind, parallel-group study, we examined the effect of short-term treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) in a group of 20 nonsmoking asthmatic patients who required only beta2-agonists to control their symptoms. We administered FP (250 microg twice daily) or matched placebo for 6 wk. Methacholine challenge was performed before treatment, after 3 wk, and at the end of treatment. Each patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial biopsy before and after treatment. Eight patients in the placebo group and nine patients in the FP group completed the study. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine decreased significantly only after 6 wk of treatment with FP (p < 0.05). When we compared the FP group with the placebo group, we observed a significant decrease only in the number of cells expressing intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and MAC-1 (p < 0.04 and p < 0.03, respectively). Moreover, we saw that the tryptase level in BAL decreased (p < 0.001), whereas the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) level did not change significantly. Additionally, the number of eosinophils and mast cells in the lamina propria in bronchial biopsies specimens was significantly smaller in the FP group than in the placebo group (p < 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, in the FP group, we found that basement-membrane thickness was significantly decreased when compared with that of the placebo group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that short-term treatment with low-dose FP reduces inflammatory cell infiltration into the lamina propria in bronchial biopsy specimens. Moreover, short-term low-dose FP treatment might control the intensity of airway remodeling in mild asthma.