Objective: To determine the prevalence and correlation with clinical manifestations of the IgG and IgM isotypes of antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL), phosphatidic acid (aPA), phosphatidylinositol (aPI) and phosphatidylserine (aPS) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods: Clinical and laboratory features of 92 consecutive unselected patients with SLE were prospectively studied over two years. aCL, aPA, aPI and aPS were determined by ELISA.
Results: aCL were detected in 34 (37%) patients, aPA in 26 (28%), aPI in 22 (24%), and aPS in 29 (32%). A significant association was found between the appearance of thrombosis and the presence of IgG aCL (p < 0.001) and IgG aPS (p < 0.05). A significant association was also found between thrombocytopenia and the presence of IgG aCL (p < 0.001), IgG aPA (p < 0.01), IgG aPI (p < 0.05), and IgG aPS (p < 0.001). The development of hemolytic anemia was associated with the detection of IgM aCL (p < 0.001), IgM aPA (p < 0.05), IgM aPI (p < 0.001), and IgM aPS (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: We found a relatively high prevalence of aCL, aPA, aPI and aPS in our SLE population and confirmed the presence of a correlation between the IgG isotype of these antibodies and thrombosis and thrombocytopenia, and also between the IgM isotype and hemolytic anemia. These results demonstrate the variety of antiphospholipid antibodies that can be detected in SLE patients, as well as their association with the clinical manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome.