Influence of alkaline ionized water on rat erythrocyte hexokinase activity and myocardium

J Toxicol Sci. 1997 May;22(2):141-52. doi: 10.2131/jts.22.2_141.


Alkaline ionized water (AKW) produced by the electrolysis of tap water (TPW) was given to pregnant rats throughout gestation. AKW was subsequently given to infants as a test group until 15 weeks old to determine changes in body and organ weights, erythrocyte hexokinase (HK) activity and histological preparations of myocardiac muscle. The results were compared with those for rats given TPW. Body weight of male and female rats given AKWA at 3 to 11 weeks of age after birth significantly increased beyond control group values. Organ weights of offspring at 15 weeks-old showed no statistical difference for either group. HK activity, the rate-determining enzyme in erythrocyte glycolysis, significantly increased in males given AKW at 15 weeks-old. This suggests that AKW intake causes elevation of metabolic activity. Hyperkalemia was observed in males and females given AKW at 15 weeks-old. Especially in males, pathological changes of necrosis in myocardiac muscle were observed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Alkalies / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Biotransformation
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Electrolysis
  • Electrolytes / metabolism
  • Erythrocytes / drug effects*
  • Erythrocytes / enzymology
  • Female
  • Fresh Water / analysis*
  • Heart / drug effects*
  • Hexokinase / metabolism*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Hyperkalemia / chemically induced
  • Male
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Pregnancy
  • Quality Control
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Staining and Labeling
  • Water Purification / standards


  • Alkalies
  • Electrolytes
  • Hexokinase