The powdered roots of moghat (Glossostemon bruguieri) have been traditionally used in Eastern countries for their nutritive and therapeutic value. However, the biological effects of the plant constituents have not been proved on the basis of scientific research. The present study aimed to evaluate the content and composition of proteins and mucilages of the roots and seeds of moghat, as well as the hypoglycemic effect of the mucilages. The crude protein constituted 19.5% of the seeds, while it made up 4.5% of the peeled dried roots of Glossostemon bruguieri (Moghat). Glutamic acid, proline, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine were abundant in the protein of both plant parts; 72 and 83%, respectively. Valine, cysteine, methionine and lysine were detected only in seed protein. Molecular weights of the seed proteins were 50,000, 45,000 and 22,000. Moghat seeds contained 5.0% mucilage, while 15.75% and 29.60% were recorded in roots of one- and two-year-old plants, respectively. GLC investigation showed that both these plant parts contained rhamnose, xylose, mannose and galacturonic acid. Arabinose (1.8%) and glucuronic acid (14.6%) were present only in the seeds, while galactose constituted 33.7 to 34.5% of the root mucilage. Age of the roots was reflected in quantitative differences rather than qualitative ones. The root mucilages had remarkable hypoglycemic activity, decreasing the blood glucose level in diabetic rats by 54.5% within 15 days. Accordingly, moghat roots should be investigated as potential medical and nutritive food.