Hyperhomocysteinemia is a condition which, in the absence of kidney disease, indicates a disrupted sulfur amino acid metabolism, either because of vitamin (folate, B12 and B6) deficiency or a genetic defect. Epidemiological evidence suggests that mild hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased risk of arteriosclerotic disease and stroke. The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis has been investigated in 10 studies involving a total of 1200 patients and 1200 controls. Eight of these studies demonstrated positive association with odds ratios that ranged from 2 to 13. This association was enhanced by including a methionine loading test. There is some evidence which suggests that hyperhomocysteinemia and APC resistance have a synergistic effect on the onset of thrombotic disease. Studies on the mechanism that underlies the relationship between thrombosis and hyperhomocysteinemia used non-physiologically high levels of homocysteine, rendering the data doubtful as to their patho-physiological relevance.