Gender differences in extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism in 37 nations

J Soc Psychol. 1997 Jun;137(3):369-73. doi: 10.1080/00224549709595447.


Mean gender differences on Eysenck's three personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were collated for 37 nations. Women obtained higher means than men on neuroticism in all countries, and men obtained higher means than women on psychoticism in 34 countries and on extraversion in 30 countries. The relation between the magnitude of the gender differences and per capita incomes was not significant for any of the three traits.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Developed Countries
  • Developing Countries
  • Economics
  • Extraversion, Psychological*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Men / psychology*
  • Neurotic Disorders / ethnology*
  • Personality Tests
  • Psychotic Disorders / ethnology*
  • Women / psychology*