A multicenter study of sleep-wake rhythm disorders: therapeutic effects of vitamin B12, bright light therapy, chronotherapy and hypnotics

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996 Aug;50(4):203-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.1996.tb02743.x.


One hundred and six subjects with primary sleep-wake rhythm disorders [13 non-24 hour sleep-wake syndrome (non-24), 76 delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), 11 irregular sleep-wake pattern (irregular) and six long sleepers] were treated with vitamin B12, bright light, chronotherapy and/or hypnotics. These therapies caused moderate or remarkable improvement in 32% of the non-24, 42% of DSPS, 45% of irregular and 67% of long sleepers. A lack of adequate sleep, unpleasant feelings at waking and daytime drowsiness were also improved in DSPS.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Chronotherapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Periodicity*
  • Phototherapy*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / therapy*
  • Triazolam / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin B 12 / therapeutic use*
  • Wakefulness*


  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Triazolam
  • Vitamin B 12