Co-stimulation in T cell responses

Curr Opin Immunol. 1997 Jun;9(3):396-404. doi: 10.1016/s0952-7915(97)80087-8.


Antigen-specific T cell responses have primarily been considered in terms of activation signals delivered through the TCR and the co-stimulatory molecule CD28. In the past few years, studies have demonstrated the critical importance of inhibitory signals for regulating lymphocyte activation. CD28 and its homologue cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) share the same counter-receptors on antigen-presenting cells, but recent experiments have shown that CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposite effects on T cell activation. The mechanisms responsible for integrating these activation and inhibitory signals at the cellular and molecular levels are just beginning to be elucidated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abatacept
  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology*
  • CD28 Antigens / immunology*
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Humans
  • Immunoconjugates*
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • CD28 Antigens
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human
  • Immunoconjugates
  • Abatacept