Gender identity disorder: a review of the past 10 years

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Jul;36(7):872-80. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199707000-00008.


Objective: To review the clinically relevant literature on gender identity disorder (GID) in children and adolescents over the past 10 years.

Method: All literature referring to gender identity and children or adolescents from 1985 on was reviewed.

Results: Changes in the DSM-IV nomenclature include (1) adoption of the single diagnosis of GID to apply to children, adolescents, and adults; (2) changes in the format of the criteria; and (3) placement in the section "Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders." Rates of associated psychopathology in children with GID are comparable with those in children with other psychiatric disorders, particularly disorders that are internalizing in form. Biological and psychosocial factors thought to be relevant in the development of GID are reviewed.

Conclusions: Research is required to elucidate the complicated interaction between biological and psychosocial factors in the development of GID and to evaluate treatment efficacy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Gender Identity*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychosexual Development*
  • Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / classification
  • Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / diagnosis*
  • Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / psychology