We have identified and characterized a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-D, which is structurally related to vascular endothelial growth factor C. A full-length cDNA for human VEGF-D was cloned following the identification of an EST obtained through a TFASTA search of public EST databases. The murine VEGF-D was subsequently isolated from a mouse lung cDNA library. The human VEGF-D gene was mapped to human chromosome Xp22.31. Both human and mouse VEGF-D are strongly expressed in lung and encode the eight cysteine residues that are highly conserved among the members of this family. The high level of conservation between mouse and human VEGF-D may emphasize the biological importance of this gene. Recently the murine gene, FIGF, which is identical to mouse VEGF-D, was reported.