Evidence that antipsychotic drugs are inverse agonists at D2 dopamine receptors

Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;121(4):731-6. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0701196.


1. The effects of a number of D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists have been determined on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human D2short dopamine receptor (CHO-D2S cells). 2. Dopamine inhibited the effect of forskolin (as expected for a D2 receptor). However, all of the antagonists tested, apart from UH232 and (-)-butaclamol, were able to increase cyclic AMP accumulation above the forskolin control level. (+)-Butaclamol elicited a similar stimulation of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in a CHO cell line expressing human D2long dopamine receptors whereas it exhibited no stimulating effect on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in untransfected CHO-K1 cells. 3. There was a strong correlation between the EC50 values of these compounds for potentiation of cyclic AMP accumulation and their Ki values from radioligand binding experiments in CHO-D2S cells. 4. The effects of both (+)-butaclamol and dopamine in CHO-D2S cells were inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin indicating a role for Gi/Go proteins. 5. UH232 did not significantly affect forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation but this substance was able to inhibit the effects of both dopamine and (+)-butaclamol in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus the effects of (+)-butaclamol on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation are mediated directly via the D2 receptor rather than by reversal of the effects of an endogenous agonist. 6. These data suggest that the D2 dopamine receptor antagonists tested here, many of which are used clinically as antipsychotic drugs, are in fact inverse agonists at human D2 dopamine receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin / analogs & derivatives
  • 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Butaclamol / pharmacology
  • CHO Cells / drug effects
  • CHO Cells / metabolism
  • Colforsin / pharmacology
  • Cricetinae
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism
  • Dopamine Agonists / pharmacology*
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2 / drug effects*
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2 / metabolism


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Dopamine Agonists
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2
  • Colforsin
  • 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin
  • UH 232
  • Butaclamol
  • Cyclic AMP