Long-term unemployment amongst adolescents: a longitudinal study

J Adolesc. 1997 Jun;20(3):261-80. doi: 10.1006/jado.1997.0084.


The unique developmental period of adolescence suggests a distinct experience of unemployment compared to older and adult populations. A longitudinal study of long-term unemployed adolescents found healthy levels of negative self-esteem associated with strong adult social identification, high perceived time filled, low employment commitment and strong perceived personal identity. The evidence suggested good psychological health (indicated by negative self-esteem and GHQ-12) contributed to gaining employment. Employment was not associated with an improvement in levels of self-esteem (both positive and negative), although the psychological benefits of employment were indicated by a lowering in GHQ-12 scores (despite lower levels reported during unemployment by those later employed).

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leisure Activities
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Personality Development*
  • Personality Inventory
  • Public Assistance
  • Self Concept*
  • Social Identification
  • Unemployment / psychology*
  • United Kingdom
  • Vocational Guidance