Segregation ratio, heritability and relative risk of genetic susceptibility were estimated for 355 families of lung cancer in matched pair with genetic epidemiological methods. Results showed that segregation ratio for lung cancer was 0.09-0.12 (95% confidence interval, CI) and heritability of lung cancer was (40.58 +/- 4.01)% and (27.58 +/- 4.76)% for smokers and non-smokers, respectively. Relative risks of genetic susceptibility to lung cancer were 4.73 (95% CI 3.90-5.74) and 2.61 (95% CI 2.18-3.13) in their first and second degree relatives, respectively, after adjustment of smoking with a logistic regression model. It was also found that there was an interaction between smoking habit and genetic background of lung cancer. Thus, it is believed that genetic background is one of the multifactorial causes in lung cancer.