Multistage regulation of Th1-type immune responses by the transcription factor IRF-1

Immunity. 1997 Jun;6(6):673-9. doi: 10.1016/s1074-7613(00)80443-4.


Eradication of a given pathogen is dependent on the selective differentiation of T helper (Th) cells into Th1 or Th2 types. We show here that T cells from mice lacking the transcription factor IRF-1 fail to mount Th1 responses and instead exclusively undergo Th2 differentiation in vitro. Compromised Th1 differentiation is found to be associated with defects in multiple cell types, namely impaired production of interleukin-12 by macrophages, hyporesponsiveness of CD4+ T cells to interleukin-12, and defective development of natural killer cells. These results indicate the involvement of IRF-1 in multiple stages of the Th1 limb of the immune response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cell Differentiation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
  • Interleukin-12 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-12 / physiology
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Phosphoproteins / physiology*
  • Th1 Cells / cytology*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / cytology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
  • Irf1 protein, mouse
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Interleukin-12