Two distinct forms of long-term depression (LTD), one dependent on the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and the other dependent on the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), are shown to coexist in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells of juvenile (11-35 day-old) rats. Both forms were pathway specific and required membrane depolarization and a rise in postsynaptic Ca2+. mGluR-LTD, but not NMDAR-LTD, required the activation of T-type Ca2+ channels, group 1 mGluRs, and protein kinase C, while NMDAR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, required protein phosphatase activity. NMDAR-LTD was associated with a decrease in the size of quantal excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas for mGluR-LTD there was no change in quantal size, but a large decrease in the frequency of events. NMDAR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, reversed NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation, and NMDAR-LTD was unaffected by prior saturation of mGluR-LTD. These findings indicate that NMDAR-LTD and mGluR-LTD are mechanistically distinct forms of synaptic plasticity.