Numerous prognostic factors have been identified in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which may enable stratification of patients into subsets indicating risk of recurrence following complete resection. Such prognostic markers include a variety of clinico-pathologic factors such as tumor size, modal status, and histopathologic variables. Several serum tumor markers have also proven useful. Moreover, a wide variety of molecular markers have been described over the last decade, which can be classified as molecular genetic markers, metastatic propensity markers, differentiation markers, and proliferation markers. This article reviews those prognostic markers most likely to prove clinically useful from the perspective of guiding postresection treatment strategies in early stage NSCLC.