A new type of dialyzer (PAN 650 SF Asahi) is analyzed in terms of hydraulic properties, solute clearances and dialysate flow distribution. The new type of dialyzer is a polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber filter, equipped with spacing filaments placed externally to the fibers to facilitate dialysate distribution and avoid channeling. The new filter is compared with a similar filter without spacing filaments. For this purpose, blood and dialysate side clearances have been measured in sequential dialysis session carried out randomly in the same patients. Furthermore, a last generation helical scanner (X-Press/HS1, Toshiba) has been utilized to analyze in vitro the flow distribution of dialysate inside the dialyzer. A contrast medium was injected and a sequence of images has been achieved on a longitudinal section of the dialyzer. This new method permits to avoid any bias due to the cylindrical shape of the dialyzer, since a 10 mm thick rectangular section is analyzed and not the entire body of the filter. The dialyzers equipped with spacing filaments displayed a significant improvement of the dialysate distribution as demonstrated by the radiological pattern. In detail, despite a channeling phenomenon in the peripherical region of the bundle is still present, this is remarkably reduced in comparison with the channelling phenomenon observed in the standard dialyzers. This improved distribution is confirmed by a significant improvement of the solute clearances.