Demyelinating peripheral neuropathies are clinically divided into inherited and acquired types. Inherited demyelinating neuropathies are caused by mutations in genes expressed by myelinating Schwann cells, whereas acquired ones, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), are probably caused by autoimmune mechanisms. We find that heterozygous P0 knockout (P0+/-) mice develop a neuropathy that resembles CIDP. By one year of age, P0+/- mice develop severe, asymmetric slowing of motor nerves, with temporal dispersion or conduction block, which are features of acquired demyelinating neuropathies including CIDP. Moreover, morphological analysis of affected nerves reveals severe and selective demyelination of motor fibers, focal regions of demyelination, and inflammatory cells. These data suggest that immune-mediated mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of the neuropathy in P0+/- mice.