A sex chromosome locus for psychosis has been considered on the basis of some sex differences in genetic risk and expression of illness, and an association with X-chromosome anomalies. Previous molecular genetic studies produced weak evidence for linkage of schizophrenia to the proximal short arm of the X-chromosome, while some other regions were not ruled out. Here we report an attempt to expand the Xp findings in: (i) a multicenter collaboration focusing on 92 families with a maternal pattern of inheritance (Study I), and (ii) an independent sample of 34 families unselected for parental mode of transmission (Study II). In the multicenter study, a parametric analysis resulted in positive lod scores (highest of 1.97 for dominant and 1.19 for recessive inheritance at a theta of 0.20) for locus DXS7, with scores below 0.50 for other markers in this region (MAOB, DXS228, and ARAF1). Significant allele sharing among affected sibling pairs was present at DXS7. In the second study, positive lod scores were observed at MAOB (highest of 2.16 at a theta of 0.05 for dominant and 1.64 at a theta of 0.00 for recessive models) and ALAS2 (the highest of 1.36 at a theta of 0.05 for a recessive model), with significant allele sharing (P = 0.003 and 0.01, respectively) at these two loci. These five markers are mapped within a small region of Xp11. Thus, although substantial regions of the X-chromosome have been investigated without evidence for linkage being found, a locus predisposing to schizophrenia in the proximal short arm of the X-chromosome is not excluded.