Inflammatory reaction dependence on implant localization in rat soft tissue models

Biomaterials. 1997 Jul;18(14):979-87. doi: 10.1016/s0142-9612(97)00012-4.


This study compares two different implantation models in soft tissue in rat abdominal wall with regard to inflammatory reactions. Titanium rods and discs, penetrating or not penetrating the peritoneal wall respectively, were implanted. After 3, 10 or 30 days the distribution of monocytes/macrophages and cytokines (interleukin-1 and transforming growth factor-beta) in the tissue adjacent to the implants was investigated under immunohistochemistry. The macrophage-specific antibody, ED1, was used for the identification of newly recruited macrophages and the ED2 antibody was used for the mature tissue macrophages. After 10 days the non-penetrating implants had a larger number of cells close to the implant than the penetrating implants. The opposite was seen after 30 days implantation, with a larger number of cells around the penetrating implants. At all time intervals the penetrating implants had a thicker reactive capsule. The cytokines interleukin-1beta and transforming growth factor-beta could be detected in the reactive tissue adjacent to both types of implants, without obvious differences for the two implant situations. The biocompatibility of a material appears to be influenced by the localization of the implant. In addition, it seems to be of importance to extend the follow-up periods further, as we cannot assume that steady state is reached at 30 days implantation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Muscles / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Antibody Specificity
  • Cell Adhesion / physiology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation / etiology*
  • Inflammation / physiopathology
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / cytology
  • Male
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Peritoneum / metabolism
  • Peritoneum / physiology
  • Prostheses and Implants / adverse effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Soft Tissue Injuries / etiology*
  • Soft Tissue Injuries / physiopathology
  • Tissue Fixation
  • Titanium / adverse effects
  • Titanium / metabolism*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism


  • Interleukin-1
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Titanium