At least one third of hospital admissions for heart failure result from noncompliance with therapeutic regimens, both dietary and pharmacologic. In chronic diseases, noncompliance with both lifestyle modification and medication regimens is a major health problem. Patients frequently stop taking their medications because they consider them ineffective or because they experience unpleasant side effects. In asymptomatic conditions, patients may believe they do not need the medication and may not even fill their prescription. If they do obtain the medications, they may forget to take them regularly. Educational efforts and behavioral techniques can improve patient compliance in chronic, asymptomatic conditions, but one of the most effective strategies remains improved patient-physician communication.