A four year old Caucasian girl with a constitutional ring chromosome 22 abnormality and developmental delay presented with increasing ataxia and a six week history of non-specific symptoms. Imaging studies demonstrated a large third ventricular tumor with apparent involvement of the septum. Microscopic and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. This tumor is compared and contrasted to peripheral malignant rhabdoid tumors and central primitive neuroectodermal tumors. The role of a putative tumor suppressor gene on the long arm of chromosome 22 in the pathogenesis of these tumors is also discussed.